Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Thrombomodulin (TM) is a type I transmembrane glycoprotein mainly expressed on the endothelial cells, where it binds thrombin to form the thrombin-TM complex that can activate protein C and thrombin-activable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) and induce anticoagulant and anti-fibrinolytic reactions, respec-tively. Cell activation and injury often sheds microparticles that contain membrane TM, which circulate in biofluids like blood. However, the biological function of circulating microparticle-TM is still unknown even though it has been recognized as a biomarker of endothelial cell injury and damage. In comparison with cell membrane, different phospholipids are exposed on the microparticle surface due to cell membrane "flip-flop"upon cell activation and injury. Liposomes can be used as a microparticle mimetics. In this report, we prepared TM-containing liposomes with different phospholipids as surrogates of endothelial microparticle-TM and investigated their cofactor activities. We found that liposomal TM with phosphatidylethanolamine (PtEtn) showed increased protein C activation but decreased TAFI activation in comparison to liposomal TM with phosphatidylcholine (PtCho). In addition, we investigated whether protein C and TAFI compete for the thrombin/TM complex on the liposomes. We found that protein C and TAFI did not compete for the thrombin/TM complex on the liposomes with PtCho alone and with low concentration (5%) of PtEtn and phosphatidylserine (PtSer), but competed each other on the liposomes with higher concentration (10%) of PtEtn and PtSer. These results indicate that membrane lipids affect protein C and TAFI activation and microparticle-TM may have different cofactor activities in comparison to cell membrane TM.(c) 2023 The Author(s).
Gruzdys, Valentinas; Wang, Lin; Wang, Dan; Huang, Rachel; and Sun, Xue-Long, "Investigation of Cofactor Activities of Endothelial Microparticle- Thrombomodulin with Liposomal Surrogate" (2023). Chemistry Faculty Publications. 624.
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