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Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications


Thrombomodulin (TM) is a type I transmembrane glycoprotein mainly expressed on the endothelial cells, where it binds thrombin to form the thrombin-TM complex that can activate protein C and thrombin-activable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) and induce anticoagulant and anti-fibrinolytic reactions, respec-tively. Cell activation and injury often sheds microparticles that contain membrane TM, which circulate in biofluids like blood. However, the biological function of circulating microparticle-TM is still unknown even though it has been recognized as a biomarker of endothelial cell injury and damage. In comparison with cell membrane, different phospholipids are exposed on the microparticle surface due to cell membrane "flip-flop"upon cell activation and injury. Liposomes can be used as a microparticle mimetics. In this report, we prepared TM-containing liposomes with different phospholipids as surrogates of endothelial microparticle-TM and investigated their cofactor activities. We found that liposomal TM with phosphatidylethanolamine (PtEtn) showed increased protein C activation but decreased TAFI activation in comparison to liposomal TM with phosphatidylcholine (PtCho). In addition, we investigated whether protein C and TAFI compete for the thrombin/TM complex on the liposomes. We found that protein C and TAFI did not compete for the thrombin/TM complex on the liposomes with PtCho alone and with low concentration (5%) of PtEtn and phosphatidylserine (PtSer), but competed each other on the liposomes with higher concentration (10%) of PtEtn and PtSer. These results indicate that membrane lipids affect protein C and TAFI activation and microparticle-TM may have different cofactor activities in comparison to cell membrane TM.(c) 2023 The Author(s).


Financial supports from NIH RO1 grant (1R01HL12604-04, X. -L. Sun) , National Science Foundation MRI grant (CHE-1126384, X. -L. Sun) , Faculty Research Fund at the Center for Gene Regulation in Health and Disease (GRHD) at Cleveland State University supported by Ohio Department of Development (ODOD) as well as Dissertation Research Award (DRA, V. Gruzdys) at Cleveland State University are appreciated.




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