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Journal of the American Heart Association


Background:Decreased serum arylesterase activity, catalyzed by the high-density lipoprotein–associated paraoxonase (PON)-1, is associated with increased oxidant stress and atherosclerosis risk. We sought to determine the prognostic value of serum PON-1 activity, as monitored by PON or arylesterase activities, in subjects with chronic kidney disease (CKD), particularly in relation to established cardiac biomarkers.Methods and Results: Serum arylesterase and PON activities were measured in sequential subjects with CKD (n=630; estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] <60 mL/min per 1.73 m2) and an age- and sex-matched control group of non-CKD subjects (n=315) presenting for cardiac evaluations and prospectively followed for incident (3-year) major adverse cardiac events (composite of death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and stroke). Serum arylesterase activity in CKD subjects was lower compared with that in non-CKD control subjects [median (interquartile range) 94 (77 to 112) versus 103 (85 to 121) μmol(L·min) per mL, P<0.001]; similarly, PON activity in CKD subjects was lower compared with that in non-CKD control subjects [median (interquartile range) 474 (275 to 936) versus 586 (301 to 1118) nmol(L·min) per mL, P<0.001]. Lower serum arylesterase (hazard ratio 1.8, 95% CI 1.26 to 2.57, P<0.01) was a predictor of poorer outcomes. After adjusting for traditional risk factors and medication use, lower serum arylesterase (hazard ratio 1.55, 95% CI 1.08 to 2.23, P<0.05) still conferred an increased risk of major adverse cardiac events at 3 years. Conclusions: In patients with CKD, decreased serum arylesterase activity, a measure of diminished antioxidant properties of PON-1, predicts higher risk of incident long-term adverse cardiovascular events (heart attack, stroke, or death) in multivariable models adjusting for established clinical and biochemical risk factors.


This research was supported by National Institutes of Health (NIH) grants P01HL076491, 1P01HL098055, and 5P01HL103453 and the Leducq Fondation. The GeneBank study has been supported by NIH grants R01HL103866, 1P20HL113452, 1R01HL103931, and R01ES021801 and the Cleveland Clinic Clinical Research Unit of the Case Western Reserve University CTSA (UL1TR 000439-06).




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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License





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