Contribution of Amino Acid Region 334–335 From Factor VA Heavy Chain to the Catalytic Efficiency of Prothrombinase

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We have demonstrated that amino acids E (323), Y (324), E (330), and V (331) from the factor Va heavy chain are required for the interaction of the cofactor with factor Xa and optimum rates of prothrombin cleavage. We have also shown that amino acid region 332-336 contains residues that are important for cofactor function. Using overlapping peptides, we identified amino acids D (334) and Y (335) as contributors to cofactor activity. We constructed recombinant factor V molecules with the mutations D (334) --> K and Y (335) --> F (factor V (KF)) and D (334) --> A and Y (335) --> A (factor V (AA)). Kinetic studies showed that while factor Va (KF) and factor Va (AA) had a K D for factor Xa similar to the K D observed for wild-type factor Va (factor Va (WT)), the clotting activities of the mutant molecules were impaired and the k cat of prothrombinase assembled with factor Va (KF) and factor Va (AA) was reduced. The second-order rate constant of prothrombinase assembled with factor Va (KF) or factor Va (AA) for prothrombin activation was approximately 10-fold lower than the second-order rate constant for the same reaction catalyzed by prothrombinase assembled with factor Va (WT). We also created quadruple mutants combining mutations in the amino acid region 334-335 with mutations at the previously identified amino acids that are important for factor Xa binding (i.e., E (323)Y (324) and E (330)V (331)). Prothrombinase assembled with the quadruple mutant molecules displayed a second-order rate constant up to 400-fold lower than the values obtained with prothrombinase assembled with factor Va (WT). The data demonstrate that amino acid region 334-335 is required for the rearrangement of enzyme and substrate necessary for efficient catalysis of prothrombin by prothrombinase.