Identification of a Binding Site for Blood Coagulation Factor Xa on the Heavy Chain of Factor VA. Amino Acid Residues 323–331 of Factor V Represent an Interactive Site for Activated Factor X

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We have recently shown that amino acid region 307-348 of factor Va heavy chain (42 amino acids, N42R) is critical for cofactor activity and may contain a binding site for factor Xa and/or prothrombin [(2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276, 18614-18623]. To ascertain the importance of this region for factor Va cofactor activity, we have synthesized eight overlapping peptides (10 amino acid each) spanning amino acid region 307-351 of the heavy chain of factor Va and tested them for inhibition of prothrombinase activity. The peptides were also tested for the inhibition of the binding of factor Va to membrane-bound active site fluorescent labeled Glu-Gly-Arg human factor Xa ([OG488]-EGR-hXa). Factor Va binds specifically to membrane-bound [OG488]-EGR-hXa (10nM) with half-maximum saturation reached at approximately 6 nM. N42R was also found to interact with [OG488]-EGR-hXa with half-maximal saturation observed at approximately 230 nM peptide. N42R was found to inhibit prothrombinase activity with an IC50 of approximately 250 nM. A nonapeptide containing amino acid region 323-331 of factor Va (AP4') was found to be a potent inhibitor of prothrombinase. Kinetic analyses revealed that AP4' is a noncompetitive inhibitor of prothrombinase with respect to prothrombin, with a K(i) of 5.7 microM. Thus, the peptide interferes with the factor Va-factor Xa interaction. Displacement experiments revealed that the nonapeptide inhibits the direct interaction of factor Va with [OG488]-EGR-hXa (IC50 approximately 7.5 microM). The nonapeptide was also found to bind directly to [OG488]-EGR-hXa and to increase the catalytic efficiency of factor Xa toward prothrombin in the absence of factor Va. In contrast, a peptadecapeptide from N42R encompassing amino acid region 337-351 of factor Va (P15H) had no effect on either prothrombinase activity or the ability of the cofactor to interact with [OG488]-EGR-hXa. Our data demonstrate that amino acid sequence 323-331 of factor Va heavy chain contains a binding site for factor Xa.