Sixty-six CSU undergraduate students will have the opportunity to work on research projects with faculty mentors during Summer 2015. Fifty-eight proposals were received from six colleges with requests totaling $450,397. With the generous support of the Provost's office, 36 proposals were funded across six colleges for a total of $249,980. The Fall 2015 Undergraduate Research Poster Session will take place on September 3, 2015 from 10am - 2pm in the Student Center Atrium. Students, faculty, and staff will be invited to attend the poster session, which provides students the opportunity to discuss their research with the CSU community.
Effects of Accelerometer Based Feedback on Clinical Measures and Paretic Upper Extremity Amount of Use in Subjects Chronic Post-Stroke
Amber Kuehn, Nathan Pohl, and Mishgan Abdullah
Purpose/Hypothesis: To determine the effects of accelerometer based feedback on clinical measures of paretic upper extremity (UE) recovery in people post-stroke and examine the relationship between these changes and paretic UE amount of use (AOU) measured by an accelerometer. Subjects: 7 people chronic post-stroke (5 males, 2 females; aged 62.03 ± 11.33 years) with an Upper Extremity Fugl-Meyer score range of 10-63 were included for this poster. Materials/Methods: Subjects wore wrist accelerometers for 3 weeks in the home. Clinical measures (Motor Activity Log, Stroke Impact Scale, Chedoke Arm and Hand Activity Inventory, and the ABILHAND) were assessed weekly. Data analysis included a repeated measures ANOVA and Pearson correlations. Results: Improvements and declines were present for clinical measures in individual subjects, but group changes were insignificant (p = 0.11, p = 0.23). No significant relationships were found between the change in clinical measures and paretic UE AOU. There was a trend for subjects with greater impairments post-stroke to have greater nonparetic UE use. Conclusions: Feedback led to insignificant improvements in clinical measures, but these were not retained. Effects, which appeared to vary based on stroke severity and individual perception, may not have been retained due to short treatment period.
Characterization of the detailed interaction interface between T. brucei telomere proteins TRF and TIF2
Jennifer Kungle, John Sabljic, and Tia Nikova
The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei causes fatal African trypanosomiasis in humans and nagana in cattle. T. brucei switches its variant surface glycoproteins (VSGs) inside the mammalian host, evading the host immune response. VSGs are expressed monoallelically from subtelomeric expression sites, and telomere proteins regulate VSGs. We previously found that telomere protein TbTIF2 interacts with TbTRF (TTAGGG-repeat binding factor) and plays important roles in VSG switching regulation. TbTRF maintains the telomere terminal structure. TbTIF2 is essential for subtelomeric integrity and suppresses VSG switching by inhibiting subtelomeric gene conversion. Depletion of TbTIF2 decreases TbTRF protein level. We hypothesize that TbTRF-TbTIF2 interaction is essential for maintaining TbTRF protein level. We test this hypothesis by mapping the interaction between TbTRF andTbTIF2. TbTRF has both N-terminal TRF Homology (TRFH) and C-terminal Myb domains. TbTRFH contains seven helices and interacts with the N-terminus of TbTIF2 (aa 2-190). We found that deleting either of the first two helices in TbTRFH abolishes its interaction with TbTIF2. Currently we are generating deletion and point mutations within the first two helices of TbTRFH, which will be tested for their ability to interact with TbTIF2 to determine the key residues in TbTRFH that are required for interacting with TbTIF2.
Eric M. Lange, Samuel O. Sanya, Aliandra Barbutti, Stephen A. Reeves, and Joshua M. Cmar
This research focuses on advancing the knowledge of a catalytic gasification process as a potential in-situ resource utilization and waste management alternative. This research has significance in a variety of engineering applications, but it is of particular relevance towards reducing landfill waste or as an in-situ resource generation system for space exploration beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO). This process evolves through a reaction mechanism consisting on two liquid-phase oxidation reactions of long-chain polymers, complemented by two gas-phase reactions. This project focusses on one of the gas phase reactions: one of the main fuel producing reactions, the Sabatier (also referred to as “methanation”) reaction. The primary focus of this project is to analyze experimental data collected for this reaction, and to determine the kinetic parameters of the Sabatier reaction. The research is an outgrowth to previous kinetic determinations available for the reaction. Indeed, the data used to perform the kinetic analysis was originally collected by Lunde and Kester in the 1970s (Ind. Eng. Chem., Process Des. Dev., Vol. 13, No. 1, pp. 27-32, 1974). The kinetic analysis presented here is based on fundamental reactor design equations and was accomplished using numerical techniques not readily available at the time of Lunde and Kester's analysis. The experimental data was split into two sets of data: one set used for parameter estimation, and second set to be used for validation purposes. Comparison with the original approach followed by Lunde and Kester is also provided.
Eric M. Lange, Samuel O. Sanya, Aliandra Barbutti, Stephen A. Reeves, Joshua M. Cmar, and Jade Moten
Over the last century there has been a global interest in reducing/recycling waste material as well as creating energy from renewable and more eco-friendly sources. Catalytic gasification is one effective method that can promote low-temperature conversion of solid waste to energy, also referred to as “gasification”. The gas mixture produced by gasification of long-chain polymers using ruthenium (or platinum) catalysts consists of hydrogen, methane, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and water. Product mixtures of gasification experiments were analyzed by Gas Chromatography (GC) and post-processed using statistical analysis. Using fundamental reactor design equations along with stoichiometric calculations yielded the percent gasified as well as the reaction selectivity of the process. The solid residues containing ashes, char, ruthenium, and polyethylene unreacted were analyzed in a Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) to identify its components. Quantification of the DSC spectra was used to correlate the thermal characterization of the residues with the unconverted (or non-gasified) after the reaction was quenched. Lastly, the SEM provided information on the microstructure of the residues, their atomic composition, and preliminary assessment of the possibility of catalyst recovery. These results are next to be used in formulating a kinetic mechanism for the liquid- phase oxidation, and thus complete a model of catalytic gasification amenable for scaling-up the process to continuous operation.
Joshua Lilly and Elizabeth Antonik
Balance training has been shown to be effective in preventing or lessening the severity of falls among older adults. This training can be proactive or reactive; however, the relative effectiveness of each and the necessary dosages are not known. The purpose of this research was to adapt an existing protocol for slip testing (reactive training) and video-game balance training (proactive) to better accommodate the abilities of older adults. We tested iteratively the initial protocols, set-ups, and equipment with a group of adults age 55 years and older and devised new protocols and equipment for each. After observing the subjects’ participation in the original protocol and taking into account their feedback, we made changes to four major areas of the protocol: the slipping protocol and equipment, the gaming surfaces, the harness, and the videogames themselves. We decreased the percentages for the slip distance and the slip weight in the slipping protocol, lessening the perturbation to better suit the physical abilities of older adults, and lengthened the slipping platform. We created three different gaming surfaces using mats and pool rafts, each with a distinct level of balance difficulty. A new harness was implemented into the protocol, one that allows for a wider range of stepping motion. Lastly, we modified the videogames, adding special rules and instructions that encouraged the subjects to play more aggressively while still remaining safe.
Pau Romaguera Llacer, Qiaoxia Zheng, and Qiaoyun Zheng
Transmembrane and coiled-coil domains 1 (TMCO1) is highly conserved in amino acid sequence among species and ubiquitously expressed in all human tissues. Homozygous frameshift mutation in TMCO1 causes distinctive craniofacial dysmorphism, skeletal anomalies, and mental retardation. However, its physiological functions, particularly in cancer biology, are largely unknown. In this study, we have found that knock down of TMCO1 in HeLa cells, a human cervical cancer cell line, and U2OS cells, an osteosarcoma cell line, remarkably inhibited their migratory capability; TMCO1 was highly expressed in the cells of the invasive front of high grade lung cancer and metastatic cancer cells in the clinical specimens, and lung cancer cells at the metastatic bone site in our animal model; Immunohistostaining revealed that TMCO1 was co-localized with microtubules and was able to be co-sedimentated with microtubules in the presence of paclitaxel and GTP; and deficiency of TMCO1 in cells dramatically increased acetylation of tubulin. Further investigation demonstrated that TMCO1 impacted microtubule dynamics, which is closely correlated with cancer metastasis, TBA drug response and therapeutic prognosis. Our findings provide not only new mechanistic insights into cancer metastasis, but also critically evaluate the significance of TMCO1 as a novel target for therapeutic treatment of the disease.
The ability to control the size of biologically-based, environmentally-sensitive colloidal nanoparticles can advance their application in areas such as drug delivery, tissue engineering, and biosensors. Controlling size is a primary task in engineering nanomaterials because many of their properties depend on size. With the aim of fine- tuning the size of particles, we characterize mixtures of two elastin-like polypeptide structures: a linear and a trimer configuration. Both constructs undergo aggregation above their inverse transition temperatures, but the linear ELP forms large aggregates which coalesce into a protein-rich phase, while the ELP trimer with polar head groups forms stable polymer micelles in low salt concentrations. The mixing of these two constructs makes possible a range of sizes of stable particles through the formation of a microemulsion. The linear ELP fills the cores of the micelle aggregates, resulting in larger stable particles. We determined the dependence of particle size on both the salt and linear ELP concentration across a range of temperatures using UV-vis spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering (DLS). We find that a given mixture of linear and trimer constructs has two temperature-based transitions and therefore displays three predominant size regimes. The results help elucidate the mechanisms of ELP aggregation.
Characterizing Stimuli-Responsive Materials for Drug Delivery: Interactions with Model Compounds and pH Responsive Behavior
Ryan Martin and Eric Helm
Stimuli responsive elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) nanoparticles are a promising platform for targeted drug delivery. Our laboratory has developed ELP nanoparticles that can specifically target cancer cells and provide contrast for MRI imaging. In order to utilize this system for drug delivery, the ability to carry and release drugs needs to be determined. Partition coefficients of drugs in ELP systems are one important measure of a system's ability to transport drugs, while a pH response mechanism can be utilized to provide selective drug release. In this study, we investigated the partition coefficients of seven model drug compounds in a pH responsive ELP system. The thermally responsive transition behavior of this system was also determined. Model compounds were loaded into protein solutions and allowed to separate between a protein-rich phase and an aqueous phase. The phases were separated and partition coefficients were determined by the ratio of concentrations determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The thermal transition behavior was determined by turbidity measurements using UV spectroscopy over a range of pH values and protein concentrations. This study is an important step in establishing an effective system of pH responsive ELP drug delivery nanoparticles.
Victoria McDonough and Christopher Morris
This research project sought to enhance the viability and usefulness of existing oral history interviews in a classroom setting and to develop best practices and resources for teachers to use in lesson planning. We sampled a collection of oral history interviews from the Cleveland Regional Oral History Collection according to a list of search terms pertaining to content standards typically taught in a high school classroom. After listening to these interviews, we created shorter segments called story clips which highlighted a particular event, topic, or concept. The essays and lesson plans published on the Social Studies @ CSU blog (www.socialstudies.clevelandhistory.org) explore oral history pedagogy and how to successfully deploy oral history interviews in the classroom. The existing scholarship on oral history pedagogy dealt with creating oral history by having students conduct interviews of people within their communities. This blog series serves as a primer on how to utilize existing oral histories and story clips in the classroom. We discuss how they can be used to introduce subject matter, develop historical thinking skills, and cultivate personal connections with history. We researched how to tie those story clips to Ohio Department of Education Social Studies curriculum standards. We then paired these clips with content standards, abstracts, and keywords on the History Speaks website (www.historyspeaks.clevelandhistory.org). This website serves as a resource for teachers and provides examples as to how to tie story clips to state education standards.
Francisco Monge, Jesus Monge, Andrew Reville, and Rima Sandhu
Chromosome miss-segregation during meiosis is a major factor contributing to birth defects as well as many genetic anomalies through the formation of aneuploid gametes, i.e. gametes with a deficit or surplus of one or several chromosomes. The synaptonemal complex (SC) is a major protein structure assembled with the synapsis of homologous chromosomes and is conserved from unicellular yeast to humans. One of its major roles during prophase I in meiosis is providing a structural framework for the maintenance of synapsis to facilitate the completion of reciprocal crossover events. Failure to form an effective SC or to experience crossover events leads to a cellular arrest in prophase I of meiosis. Through a genetic screen, our lab has identified a Nobel gene that suppresses cellular arrest in cells with specific mutations that cause chromosome mis-segregation. In our series of experiments we seek to garner a greater understanding of this Nobel gene’s function in the bypass of similar mutations leading to a prophase I cellular arrest. In the model organism budding yeast (S. cerevisiae), the ZIP1 protein polymerizes to form the transverse filaments that assist in maintaining the stability of the SC. Studies of the synaptonemal complex have exposed an understanding of a relation between recombination and mis-segregation. A mutation of the Zip1 gene is an example of these anomalies resulting in meiotic cellular arrest delineating similar results to those produced by a deletion mutant of the strand invasion protein Dmc1. Our lab now demonstrates an effective suppression of the cellular arrest resulting from Zip1C1 as well as that produced by a deletion mutant of Dmc1. Further understanding of this Nobel gene and its pathway are being advanced at the present in the distinction of its relation to different proteins involved in the processing double strand breaks (DSB).
Francisco Monge, Jesus Monge, Andrew Reville, and Rima Sandhu
The production of gametes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae via meiosis is under strict regulatory control where proper segregation of homologous chromosomes into gametes requires physical linkage via crossovers. Cells that initiate meiotic recombination but do not process programmed double strand breaks into crossovers enter meiotic arrest. The main goal of the current project was whether overexpression of gene Y is sufficient to bypass the meiotic arrest in prophase I exhibited by dmc1 deletion and a zip1 mutant that carries an internal deletion. DMC1 is a recombinase that promotes homologous recombination. ZIP1 is a transverse filament protein of the synaptonemal complex (the structure that forms between homologous chromosomes) and is integral in homologous recombination and proper segregation of chromosomes. Gene Y encodes a protein of unknown function in the S. cerevisiae genome that we tagged with GFP and overexpressed using an inducible promoter. Our main goal was to determine the minimum concentration of a given inducer at which gene Y is sufficiently overexpressed to bypass the arrest. We found that when overexpressing gene Y, the meiotic arrest is bypassed fully for cell cultures in sporulation medium with induction at both t=3.5 hours and 6.5 hours, over the span of 24 hours in synchronous meiotic cultures. There was also a bypass of the meiotic arrest in both the high and low concentrations of inducer added to the meiotic cultures. Bypass is achieved at the lower concentration, where there is reduced chance of induce toxicity.
Cultural Differences in Coping and Depression between Individuals of Middle-Eastern and Non-Arab Backgrounds
The Middle Eastern (Arab) demographic is a growing, yet neglected cultural group in mental health research. While Arabs are more predisposed to depression than other ethnic groups in US, little is known about mechanisms that account for this risk. One set of mechanisms may be the use of ineffective (maladaptive) coping or insufficient use of effective (adaptive) coping responses, which are robust predictors of depression in US samples, but virtually unexamined in Arabs. Further, the effect of a coping is influenced by culture, which, for Arabs, may change as a function of acculturation. Thus, the present study aimed to examine whether: (1) individuals of Arab decent differ from non-Arabs with respect to coping efforts used in response to stress, (2) cultural differences in coping responses explain disparities in depression risk across the Arab & non-Arab cultural groups, and (3) the degree that Arab identity accounts for cultural differences in coping responses and depression. Ninety-six participants (86% female, Mage = 26.66, SD = 9.68; n=61 Arabs) were recruited from Arab-affiliated organizations throughout the US and online resources. Participants anonymously completed online measures of Arab identity, adaptive and maladaptive coping responses, and depression symptoms. Results showed that Arab participants used fewer adaptive coping responses (F(7, 87)=2.12, p < .05) and more maladaptive responses relative to those of non-Arab backgrounds (F(6, 84)=2.64, p < .05). Specifically, those of Arab backgrounds reported being less likely to seek emotional support, and to more frequently use denial and behavioral disengagement when coping with stress. In particular, behavioral disengagement was associated with depression (β=.57, p < .001), and mediated the relationship between an Arab cultural background and depression symptoms (β=.19, p < .01). The positive relationship between behavioral disengagement and depression symptoms, however, was observed only for non-Arabs and Arabs with a low Arab identity. Clinical implications are discussed.
Statistical Analysis of DASI Questionnaire and Modeling the Prediction of Heart Failure Risk in Patients
9,880 patients were asked to complete the DASI questionnaire along with other questions to assess the predictability of heart failure risk. In this paper we attempt to reduce the amount of questions asked by hierarchical clustering of the question responses to determine if there is a change in the predictability of heart failure risk in patients. The data was modeled using Cox hazards multiple regression and validated through ROC and AUC. Our validation models show there is no difference between the usage of 12 and 6 DASI questions, therefore improving the simplicity of the questionnaire. Abbreviations: DASI, Duke Activity Status Index.
Enhancement of Solar Energy Conversion in Bio-derived Cells via Side Selective Modification of Photosystem I
Uchechukwu Obiako and Evan Gizzie
Deleterious effects of some methods used to harness energy from the environment today have garnered the exploration of safer and more reliable options, specifically solar energy conversion. Current solar cell technology has yielded quantum efficiencies commonly in the range of 10-20% but is limited by extensive processing methods, high cost, and need for rare materials. However, bio-derived solar cells containing Photosystem I (PSI) address these problems as PSI is highly abundant, very efficient, and low-cost. PSI acts as a biomolecular photodiode through rapid photoexcited charge separation, making it very promising for use as an integral element in solar cells. To further improve the efficiency of bio-derived cells, controlling the orientation of PSI films on gold substrates was explored. This was achieved by side-selectively modifying PSI to introduce terminal thiol groups to the protein complex thereby providing a vector of self-assembly onto the gold surface. Spinach thylakoid membranes containing PSI were extracted and chemically modified using the ligands: sulfo-N-succinimidyl S- acetylthioacetate and 2-iminothiolane. As a result, the functionalized PSI underwent direct surface coupling on gold electrodes in an inverted orientation. Fluorescence tagging was used to quantify ligand attachment to PSI. Additionally, photoelectrochemical analysis revealed an enhancement in photocurrent produced by the modified biohybrid electrodes.
Case Transition Format and Lexical Decision Performance: Does Spacing Reduce the Benefit of Orthographic Regularity?
Kristyn Oravec, Maryam Assar, and Hannah Princic
Some models of visual word identification propose that identification is analytic— mediated exclusively by letter identification. However, some studies have shown that there are phenomena that suggest a route to word identification involves holistic stimulus properties. In previous research, using a lexical decision task, in which participants are asked to determine whether letter strings are words or nonwords, we have found that response times to orthographically regular words (i.e., lowercase, uppercase, and initial uppercase formats) are faster than those to orthographically irregular words (i.e., words that include a case transition other than initial uppercase to lowercase). In this experiment, we investigated whether spacing between letters reduces the benefit of orthographic regularity. Sixteen students participated in a lexical decision experiment in which items varied in spacing and case-transition format. Items were either packed (e.g., BEAR) or spaced (e.g., B E A R); there were eight different case-transition formats (e.g., bear, BEAR, Bear, bEAR, beaR, BEAr, beAR and BEar). We found that at both spacings, response times for orthographically regular forms (e.g., bear, BEAR, Bear) were faster than those for orthographically irregular forms. Spacing had no overall effect on response times for words, and did not reduce the benefit of orthographic regularity.
Maitri K. Patel and Rosemary C. Dietrich
In eukaryotes, pre-messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) splicing is an essential process in gene expression. Splicing is carried out by a dynamic multi-megadalton RNA-protein complex known as the spliceosome. Sequential transesterification reactions catalyzed by the spliceosome convert pre-mRNA to mRNA by removing the intervening sequences (introns) and joining the coding sequences (exons) together. Small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) are essential splicing factors. Biallelic mutations of the human RNU4ATAC gene, which codes for U4atac snRNA, have been identified in patients diagnosed with Microcephalic Osteodysplastic Primordial Dwarfism type I (MOPD I). MOPD I is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by extreme intrauterine growth retardation, multiple organ abnormalities, and typically early death. The mutations that have been studied biochemically reduce U4atac snRNA function and impair minor class (U12-dependent) intron splicing. Four novel patient mutations, 37 G>A, 46 G>A, 48 G>A and 118 T>C, have recently been discovered. To evaluate the functional effects of these newly discovered mutations on U12-dependent splicing, we incorporated each of these mutations into a modified human RNU4ATAC gene construct by site directed mutagenesis. Following verification of the mutations by DNA sequencing, we prepared DNA for use in an in vivo splicing assay that is based on genetic suppression. These mutations are expected to affect the binding of proteins to U4atac snRNA that are important in formation of the catalytically active form of the spliceosome. We do not yet know how the consequent defective U12-dependent splicing affects gene expression and yields the MOPD I disease pathologies, but this study allows us to better understand the mechanistic basis of MOPD I and will serve as an important foundation for further studies and possible therapeutic intervention in the future.
An embedded system is a computer system designed to perform a specific set of tasks such as a GPS device or a digital camera. An embedded system is composed of three major parts: a processor (CPU), input devices, and output devices. The input devices are peripherals to take user command (switches and keypad) and sensors to measure environmental conditions (barometer and accelerometer). The output devices are actuators that generate light and sound (LED display and amplified speaker) and moving parts (servo motor). An important step in prototyping an embedded system is to design the input subsystem. It is traditionally done by selecting input modules and then developing hardware and software interfaces for each individual module. The undergraduate summer research is to use an inexpensive, entry-level, Android phone as a universal programmable sensor module. It provides a single unified interface and can be configured to replace a dozen commonly used input devices.
David Ian Pendleton
Selective plane illumination microscopy (SPIM), or light sheet microscopy, is a microscopy technique that allows you to acquire high resolution fluorescence images of biological samples by illuminating the sample with a thin plane from the side, instead of along the imaging axis as in traditional transillumination or epi-illumination. The purpose of this SPIM research assignment was to combine two previously built systems, an inverted SPIM and a tunable lens system. This report includes use of optics, coupling lasers and proper technique to building optical systems. Programming in Matlab, LabVIEW, and other programming languages was used to synchronize the shutter and camera electronics and acquire and process images. The paper is concluded with expected results to ensure to detection path is optimized.
Feasibility and Effects of Accelerometer Based Feedback on Paretic Upper Extremity Amount of Use in the Home Setting in Subjects Chronic Post-Stroke
Nathan Pohl, Amber Kuehn, and Mishgan Abdullah
Purpose : to (1) evaluate the feasibility of using accelerometers in the home to quantify how much subjects chronic post-stroke (PS) use their upper extremities (UE), (2) measure differences between amount of UE movement in subjects PS and a healthy control group (HC), (3) determine the effects of accelerometer based feedback on paretic UE use in subjects PS, and (4) determine if those effects are retained over time. Methods : Six subjects PS wore accelerometers for 3 weeks with two feedback sessions given during week two. Seven HC subjects wore accelerometers for one week. Accelerometer based outcome measures included relative paretic or nondominant UE time active (overall, 1 handed, 2 handed), and arm ratio (paretic/nonparetic or nondominant/dominant). Statistical analysis (SPSS v. 22.0) was preformed to evaluate differences and relationships. Results : 11 of 13 subjects (of varying severity of impairment post-stroke) completed the entire study confirming feasibility in the home. HC subjects had significantly higher amount of use than subjects PS (p < 0.04) for all outcome measures. There was no significant increase in amount of use for subjects PS after receiving feedback (p > 0.56), but some subjects had increased amount of use for some of the outcome measures.
Ilona Ponomariova, Brock Bodenbender, Khadeja Najjar, and Elizabeth Golias
Intense emotional reactions to interpersonal rejection reflect the core of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). These reactions supported by the autonomic nervous system (ANS), which has been linked to neural regions that undergird emotional experience and regulation that are affected among individuals with BPD. Despite such links, relatively few studies have examined ANS functioning among BPD populations. The few studies that have primarily focused on the independent activity of the two sympathetic (SNS) and parasympathetic (PNS) ANS branches during resting states or in response to emotion evocative films, rather than to interpersonal rejection. The present study overcomes the above noted gaps in the literature by examining the combined effects of SNS and PNS activity in response to interpersonal rejection on BPD symptoms. It was hypothesized that strong increase in SNS activity and strong decrease in PNS activity would be associated with elevated BPD symptoms. Twenty-eight participants (68% female, Mage= 29.64) completed a measure of BPD and a protocol during which SNS and PNS activity were measured over a 3-minute resting period and in response to an interpersonal exclusion task (Cyberball). Consistent with expectation, reduced PNS dominance during the interpersonal exclusion task was robustly predicted elevated BPD symptoms. Clinical implications are discussed.
For persons with lower limb amputations the human-prosthesis interface, termed the “prosthetic socket,” remains an area of ongoing research. Patient satisfaction is closely tied to the physical comfort of the device, which includes performance factors such as fit, moisture management, stiffness/rigidity, stress concentrations, range of motion, etc. An imbalance in these factors may result lack of mobility for the patient or worse, pressure sores, a precursor to debilitating deep tissue ulcerations. Ulcerations are well documented and current socket fitting techniques, as performed by a “prosthetist,” are largely subjective, relying on the prosthetist's experience and feedback from the patient. With the goal to achieve easy to manufacture patient-specific prosthetic socket designs, the technical aim of this work was to develop one critical aspect of a proposed work flow. Specifically, this work covers development and evaluation of an approach for creation of parametrized socket geometry. Accessible parameters that define a socket's geometry are easily updated during iterative computer simulations, which are to be developed in future work. Initial results yielded an undesirable number of variables at the desired accuracy, yet the method appears well suited for description of other complex geometries.
Optimizing the design and potency of diterpenic acid derivatives to improve cell membrane permeability and Hsp27 targeting characteristics
Heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) acts as a protective protein allowing it to play an integral role in aiding cancer cell resistance. Stress-induced Hsp 27 overexpression aids in the stabilization of partially denatured proteins to establish protein refolding resulting in thermotolerance, inhibition of apoptosis, cytoprotection, etc. As a result of rapid proliferation and general instability, cancer cells exhibit increased dependency on the support of Hsp 27 and it’s chaperone proteins, therefore generating an ideal target for anticancer therapy. Copalic acid, a clerodane diterpenoid, has already been confirmed in effective chaperone inhibition and antiproliferative synergistic effect. We hypothesize that by optimizing the structure of Copalic acid derivatives to increase solubility and drug potency we will increase anti-chaperone activity thereby hindering phosphorylation of Hsp27 affecting cell proliferation and stability. combinatorial chemistry strategies were used to develop and modify Copalic acid derivatives while synthesizing various dimers to enhance potency. Through utilizing NMR to identify synthesis alterations and MTT colorimetric assay we will continue to monitor and optimize the derived compounds.
Rafeeq Roberts and Danielle Davis
Cleveland has a rich history in the development of modern dance. Because dance is mainly experienced in the here and now, the collective knowledge and artistic skills of many dance artists are mostly shared with viewers of their live performances or those who they mentor. This project uses video documentation to explore the approaches and insights of a choreographer and dancers in the creative process. The resulting piece of videography will inform the design of a future digital archive of many dance artists associated with CSU and the greater dance community. Videographers Rafeeq Roberts and Danielle Davis filmed Amy Miller, Associate Artistic Director of Gibney Dance, NY and former Northeast Ohioan during the CSU Summer Dance Workshop as she taught technique and creative process, and choreographed a dance for CSU dance students. The four dancers collaborated with her in the creation of the work. Providing a varied perspective on the creative process, three other influential dance artists with connections to Northeast Ohio were also recorded sharing their experiences in teaching, rehearsing, and performing. The final digital work is a creative product that serves as an aesthetic and informational resource. Through its creation, insight for developing a future digital archive preserving many dance artists’ visions has been initiated.
Dual Stimuli Response Frequency and Stimulus Choice of the African Clawed Frog, Xenopus laevis, when presented with two stimuli
Mingo Rolince, Heidi Pignolet, and Alexa Hoy
This preliminary study examines responses of African Clawed Frogs to simultaneous presentation of two stimuli. Frogs were tested in a round arena with water 4 cm deep. Four stimulus rods driven via computer-controlled stepper motors were concealed in a screen suspended above the water. These rods could present a lateral line stimulus, a visual stimulus, or a combination of both. Overall, reactions and no reactions were evenly distributed--51.1% and 48.9%, respectively. Frogs responded more frequently to rostral than caudal stimuli (chi-squared 20.8, df=11, p < 0.04). Frogs reacted more to stimuli between -90° and 90°. Turn angle depended linearly on stimulus angle (e.g., Turn angle = 0.44 + 0.64 x Stimulus angle; pslope < 0.0001; R2adj = 69.5%). (The distributions of stimulus angles appear slightly skewed as often the same stimulus rod was retested after the frog responded and partially oriented towards it, prompting a second test with smaller angles.) Two stimuli did not elicit more responses than one stimuli (P=0.25). The frogs’ choice of stimulus depended primarily on stimulus proximity and angle, not stimulus type. When presented with two stimuli, the frog chose the nearer stimulus and the more rostral stimulus (p < 0.0001). The largest factor in predicting the frog’s choice of stimuli seems to be the linear distance from the stimuli to the frog.
Brandon Rutledge and Mike Iannica
Today humans control robots. Eventually, robots will control other robots. This research is a step in that direction. The goal of this research is to enable the NAO humanoid robot to take a picture of a VEX mobile robot and a colored cube, and analyze the picture so that the NAO can control the VEX to fetch the cube. The picture is examined by the NAO one pixel at a time. Using predetermined color values, the cube, along with the front and back of the VEX, are located, and the center points of each are calculated. The angle that the VEX needs to turn, and the distance that it needs to move, are calculated by the NAO. The NAO communicates this information to the VEX by a wireless remote control device which it manually manipulates. The VEX is programmed to receive input from the remote control and to determine from that input how it needs to move. Once the VEX reaches the cube, it closes its claw to retrieve the cube. The NAO then repeats the process, this time moving the VEX back to the NAO.