Sixty-six CSU undergraduate students will have the opportunity to work on research projects with faculty mentors during Summer 2015. Fifty-eight proposals were received from six colleges with requests totaling $450,397. With the generous support of the Provost's office, 36 proposals were funded across six colleges for a total of $249,980. The Fall 2015 Undergraduate Research Poster Session will take place on September 3, 2015 from 10am - 2pm in the Student Center Atrium. Students, faculty, and staff will be invited to attend the poster session, which provides students the opportunity to discuss their research with the CSU community.
David Ryland, Alanna Shamrock, and Shana Strunk
Until the invention of the rowing machine, rowing was only attainable on water. The Champiot Ultra Rowing Bike allows athletes to row on land and remains mobile. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to determine whether the Rowing Bike is more efficient and enjoyable than a traditional rowing machine. METHODS: Energy expenditure, heart rate, and rate perceived exertion (Borg Scale) were evaluated on 20 males (aged 23.75 ± 2.613) and 20 females' (23.05 ± 3.605) while riding the rowing bike and the traditional rowing machine for 20 minutes at 75 percent of their age-predicted maximal heart rates. Post-testing, subjects completed a preference survey. A mixed-design ANOVA in SPSS version 18.00 analyzed and compared all physiological responses and gender differences. RESULTS: Significant differences (p<0.01) were found for energy expenditure, VE and RPE (p<0.05) on the different machines. Significant differences were also found when comparing the physiological responses of genders. The questionnaire showed significantly that people prefer the Rowing Bike. CONCLUSION: The data collected indicated that the subjects prefer the row bike; however the rowing machine provides a more quality workout.
Kyle T. Schroeder
Cohesin is a widely conserved, tetrameric protein complex that tethers replicated sister chromatids during meiosis and mitosis. Two cohesin subunits, SMC-1 and SMC-3, and a third subunit, the α-kleisin, form a ring proposed to encircle sister chromatids. Different kleisins associate with cohesin during mitosis and meiosis. SCC-1 is the mitotic kleisin. Meiotic cohesin can associate with either REC-8 or COH-3/4. REC-8 and COH-3/4 cohesins differ greatly in their functional properties, indicating that the kleisin determines meiotic cohesin function. Early in meiosis, REC-8 and COH-3/4 cohesins are triggered to become cohesive at different times and by different mechanisms. Later in meiosis, REC-8 and COH-3/4 cohesins are removed from chromosomes at different times and places and by different mechanisms. Studies of sister chromatid cohesion (SCC) establishment and release by SCC-1 cohesin in mitotically proliferating yeast and vertebrate cells showed that a protein called WAPL can open the cohesin ring, allowing cohesin to dissociate from chromosomes and preventing SCC establishment. The Eco1 acetyltransferase establishes SCC by acetylating Smc3, which prevents WAPL binding. In mitotic prophase, WAPL again promotes cohesin removal. The aim of our study is to determine whether ECO-1 and WAPL-1 function similarly to regulate the two functionally specialized meiotic cohesin complexes.
Sokhna Seck and Zeenat Razvi
For all microorganisms, acquisition of metal ions is essential for survival in the environment or their infected host. Metal ions are required in many biological processes as cofactors for proteins or structural elements for enzymes. These ions play a role in chemotaxis, phosphorylation, transport of sugars and proteins, and initiation of DNA replication, among other things. It is critical for bacteria to ensure that metal uptake and availability meet its physiological needs; too little can impede these important biological processes, while too much can be toxic leading to radical formation which can cause damage to proteins and cell structures (Porcheron, Gaelle. et al. 2013). Host defense strategies against infection consist of metal starvation by sequestration using chelators or metal overload with concentrated amounts of metals using ionophores (Norris, V et al. 1996). Ionophores are lipid-soluble molecules that transport ions across a cell membrane. Pyrithione, an ionophore, is a well-known antimicrobial used to control the symptoms of dandruff and dermatitis. It inhibits fungal and bacterial cell division and is active against different bacterial systems such as E. coli and C. neoformans; it has also been found to be toxic to mammalian cells (Helsel, M et al. 2012). The aim of this research project is to target pyrithione to the site of infection - in macrophages. Tuftsin (Thr-Lys-Pro-Arg) is known to be responsible for activation of macrophage cell lines. It is internalized through a receptor- mediated mechanism by macrophages and conjugates can be made without affecting this recognition (Feng, J et al. 2010). Attaching pyrithione to tuftsin would target the ionophore to macrophages, allowing for specificity to pathogens.
Michelle Seitz, Jennifer Woods, and Larisa Suskinsas
The Ohio Department of Transportation has identified the need to specify durable, more permanent high performing pavement and bridge deck patching materials that allow for expediting pavement and bridge deck wearing surface repair for worker and user safety. Currently, either temporary or generally specified in-kind or like materials are being used to perform pavement patching. There is a current research project underway examining the performance of various high performance repair materials both in the laboratory and the field. The goals and objectives of this research project are: • Identify/determine acceptable field performance criteria for comparative analysis of selected products. • Install the products at mutually agreed locations as described herein. • Evaluate the products based on field performance criteria. • Provide updated field performance evaluation criteria based on the field performance analysis. • Provide a comprehensive standard material and performance based generic specifications in the Standard ODOT Construction and Material Specifications or Supplemental Specifications format based on desired ASTM or equivalent material properties and field performance analysis. • Provide a decision matrix for use of the recommended products as set forth in the deliverables section.
Creating miniaturized tissue constructs on a micropillar/microwell chip via 3D bioprinting technology
Yana Sickhar, Pranav Joshi, and Akshata Datar
Liver tumor tissues in the human body consist of different layers of hepatic cells including hepatoma cells and surrounding normal cells. To mimic in vivo tumor tissues, three-dimensional (3D) microarray bioprinting was demonstrated on a microwell chip via layer-by-layer printing of Hep3B human hepatoma cell line. The 3D microarray printing coupled with high-content imaging (HCI) of cell layers on the chip might open new opportunities for predictive drug screening for patients. Our goal is to demonstrate high-throughput cell printing in hydrogel layers and establish HCI of cell layers from the microwell chip for miniaturized tumor tissue engineering. To achieve this goal, Hep3B cell suspension stained with TMRM and Hoechst 33342 was mixed with alginate as well as photocrosslinkable alginate and then printed onto the microwell chip using a microarray spotter. The images of Hep3B cells encapsulated in two alginate layers were acquired by scanning the chip with a chip scanner. As a result, we successfully demonstrated two layer cell printing with Hep3B cells encapsulated in alginate and establish high-throughput HCI with fluorescently-labeled Hep3B cells at different z-focus positions. To improve imaging of cells in different layers, further optimization of gelation conditions with photocrosslinkable alginate will be necessary.
How does the body fight infection? What causes inflammation? These are only a few questions that have been asked by many doctors across the globe. One thing that is known for certain about infection is that there is a particular sub-group of enzymes called NOS’s (eNOS, nNOS and iNOS) that produce Nitric Oxide (NO), a molecule radical capable of oxidizing proteins and alter their function. In our study we focus on inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS). NOS’s are comprised of oxidase and reductase domains liked by Camodulin (CAM), a polypeptide linker. According to prior studies and SEM photographs, inducible Nitric Oxide’s input and output states were analyzed showing the enzyme as highly malleable molecule virtually creating a shape-shifting enzyme capable of various shapes, however, the internal placement of the oxidase and reductase domain within iNOS is not clearly understood. As a result, the method of transport for NOwas not revealed. This enzyme is responsible for the releasing of NOthroughout the body when activated. NOthen targets sites of infection and as a result, causes inflammation in the effected area. The true question is, what method of transport does iNOS use to safely transfer NO(a protein nitrosylating agent) throughout the body as NOis known to be a highly reactive substance. Our computational research study utilized a protein-protein docking program (PatchDock) and a molecular visualizer (PyMol) in order to gain a digital grasp of the transfer path of the NOmolecule to NO-carrier proteins like S100A9.
Christopher Stacey and Masood Ghods
Dendritic single crystal turbine blades are the most critical component in a gas turbine engine. These are made by directional solidification in ceramic molds having many cross-section changes. Abrupt cross-section changes during casting are the source of casting defects, such as, freckles and spurious grains. Purpose of this study was to examine the role of convection associated with cross-section changes in producing microstructural defects. Al-7%Si alloy was directionally solidified at 11, 29 and 73 μm s-1 in graphite crucibles having abrupt cross-section decrease and cross-section increase to simulate solidification of turbine blades. It is observed that, (i) shrinkage flow leads to composition inhomogeneity in the vicinity of section decrease and (ii) spurious grains form after section increase. It is therefore, important to minimize convection in the melt by selecting alloy compositions which minimize the change in melt density due to composition changes occurring during solidification.
Wyatt Suntala and Navid Changizi
In the spring of 2015, the Community Awareness and Prevention Association (C.A.P.A.), and westshore young leaders network (WYLN) developed and conducted a Community Perception Survey (CPS) of adult residents in the suburbs of Lakewood, Rocky River, Fairview Park, Bay Village, Westlake, and North Olmsted. The purpose of the survey was to assess attitudes and opinions about substance abuse and prevention efforts of WYLN. The survey was both anonymous and confidential. The CPS resulted in 955 usable data which were analyzed and visualized at CSU. The results showed a strong perception of alcohol abuse and accessibility to alcohol for teens by other parents. Women were more likely to perceive greater access and abuse of alcohol by teens than men, and men were more permissive with the use of alcohol by teenagers. Parents with children from grade 9 up to college were also more likely to perceive alcohol as a greater threat and were more involved/aware of community preventive efforts.
Cilia are microscopic structures that extend from the surface of mammalian cells. Cilia can be categorized into two groups, primary cilia (non-motile) and motile cilia. Cilia are composed of tubulin subunits (microtubules) and covered by a plasma membrane. The physiological role of motile cilia has been very well documented, but the function of primary cilia remains largely unknown. It has been shown that primary cilia allow cells to sense and respond to mechanical stimuli. The ability for a cell to respond to mechanical stimuli is crucial for maintaining processes such as homeostasis. It has also been shown that defects in cilia can be matched up with different diseased states. Primary cilia have shown to regulate the release of intercellular calcium in response to fluid flow. There is a correlation between the disruption of primary cilium function and the formation polycystic kidney disease. To understand and measure the mechanical properties of primary cilia optical tweezers will be used. Calcium imaging technique will also be used to show the Ca+2 status of the cell. The goal of this work involved the use of the cell line MDCK (Madin-Darby canine kidney) to uncover the mechanical properties of primary cilia.
Developing affordable wet-sample electron microscopy integrated with a temperature controlled sample holder
Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is widely used to analyze the size, shape and composition of material systems. However, using this tool for analyzing systems such as particles suspended in solution, requires drastic sample alterations, such as precipitation and fixation. Besides altering their environment, this exposes the particles to the harsh conditions within an electron microscope, such as high vacuum and electron beam exposure. To this end, the first goal of this study was to develop methodologies for imaging wet samples using electron microscopy. This is realized by creating a sandwich structure containing the solution of interest between a partially electron transparent window and a silicon substrate. The ability of the developed imaging cells to provide good imaging conditions is demonstrated with a variety of samples including polystyrene spheres, polymeric microgels and spindle shaped nanoparticles. As some of the systems investigated are temperature sensitive, the second goal of the project was to develop a temperature controlled stage that can be integrated with the SEM. In the future this heating stage will be used alongside the wet samples to image microgels above and below their critical solution temperature.
Acoustic Objective and Subjective Measurements of Noise Levels in Various Places of Worship and the Potential Consequences on the Auditory System
The purpose of this study is to record the objective and subjective measurements of noise levels in ten religious institutions of various faiths: Apostolic/Pentecostal, Baptist, Catholic, Muslim, Non-Denominational, and Seven-Day Adventist places of worship within the greater Cleveland area; in conjunction with the assessing the hearing sensitivity of the ministerial staff members who are most susceptible to prolonged noise exposure. The objective is to generate a statistical analysis of the objective acoustical measurements of primary church services of all participating religious institutions determine if the noise levels are loud enough to cause potential harm to the auditory system. The researcher would like to raise awareness for hearing conservation programs within religious organizations. Participants: Select ministerial workers of each faith: Pastor/Rabbi/Priest /Imam, wives of religious leaders, ministers of music, and musicians. 20 people were asked evaluate the noise level of their primary religious services. Methods: The acoustical measurement outcomes of each denominations primary church service was recorded with an Extech 40730 Digital model Sound Level Meter at various locations within the church sanctuary/tabernacle/synagogue/mosque. Evaluation assessment sheets asked for the ministerial staff’s perception of loudness, in four subjective categories: exceptionally loud, moderately loud, somewhat loud, and not loud. Every ministerial leader was given a pure-tone and impedance hearing screening using a Maico portable.
Ilona Tsuper and Dan Terrano
Depolarized Dynamic light scattering (DDLS) enables to measure in situ rotational and translational diffusion of nanoparticles suspended in solution. Their size, shape, diffusion, and intermolecular interactions can be interred then from DDLS data using various models of diffusion. Incorporating DDLS to analyze the dimensions of easily imaged elongated particles, such as Iron (III) oxyhydroxide Spindles (FeOOH) and gold coated Nanorods, will allow a deeper understanding between rotational/translational diffusion and size distribution of hard-to-image anisotropic wet systems such as micelles, microgels, and protein complexes. The emphasis of this study was to look at the aged FeOOH Spindle sample, and explore the size distribution and modeling of the Nanorod particles. The light scattering results obtained from the basic model of non-interacting prolate ellipsoids offered dimensions similar (within 15%) to the size distribution from the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The results, however, were somewhat different from the original particle size possibly due to sample aging and agglomeration of the FeOOH Spindles. Conversely, the Nanorod dimensions obtained from the Prolate Ellipsoid Model differed by a factor 1.2-2 from the values obtained by Transmission Electron Microscopy and SEM. The significant difference between DDLS and imaging results is due to the nature of the modeling employed (ellipsoid was used to model cylindrically shaped particles with spherical caps).
Henry Wang and Dan Wang
Sialic acids (SAs), a family of 9-carbon containing acidic monosaccharides, often terminate the glycan structures of cell surface glycoconjugates such as glycoproteins and glycolipids. The levels and linkages of sialic acids named as sialylation status vary as cell environment changes related to both physiological and pathological processes. Changes in sialylation of cell surface modulate cellular activity. SAs are highly involved in the immune system, however, the sialylation status related to individual immune cells and their activation state and functions are still unknown. In this study, we used a newly developed LC-MS/MS method to examine the cellular SA content during THP-1 monocytes differentiation into macrophages. The expression level of SAs on the cell surface is affected by its biosynthetic pathway. In particular, the synthetic enzyme, sialyltransferase, functions for adding SAs to the termini of N-linked or O-linked glycans on the cell surfaces. In this study, the change of SA was further confirmed by western blot on the sialyltransferases level. This work will abound in the approaches of SAs study, and also contribute to a better understanding of the physiological and pathological roles of SAs in the immune system.
Jason Wolf and Jordan Thomas
Wind energy has become a major contributor to energy production from renewable sources and is expected to increase its portion to the overall energy supply. Wind-tunnel testing of miniature wind turbine models plays an important role in understanding the turbine wake effects and interactions of wind farms with the incoming flow. However, previous research has often not carefully quantified the rotor aerodynamic characteristics of the mini wind turbines, i.e., how the power and thrust coefficients vary with respect to the tip speed ratio, and to what extent they represent the field-scale wind turbines. This work focuses on developing a robust method to measure the power and thrust coefficients and control the tip speed ratio. Using a series of resistors to change the resistance of the circuit, we can control the tip speed ratio of the model and estimate the power coefficient. The thrust coefficient is measured directly using a 3- component force balance. Results from two independent measurements are compared with the theory. Wake generation of the mini-wind turbine is also observed by flow visualization. This research serves as a foundation to design mini-wind turbines that can better match the field-scale wind turbine aerodynamic characteristics.